Family Spirit is “the first programme to provide clear evidence of the effectiveness of paraprofessionals as home visitors to impact behavioural and mental health disparities” (Johns Hopkins Center for American Indian Health, p. 292). The Johns Hopkins Center for American Indian Health dossier on Family Spirit, retrieved from https://goodpracticessite.files.wordpress.com/2016/03/family-spirit.pdf, indicates that evidence from “three randomized controlled trials has documented the following programme outcomes: increased maternal knowledge; increased parent self-efficacy; reduced parent stress; improved home safety attitudes; decreased maternal depression; decreased substance use; fewer behaviour problems in mothers; fewer behaviour problems in children through age 3 (externalizing, internalizing and dysregulation); and predicts lower risk of substance use and behavioural health problems over the life course” (pp. 291–292).
The dossier includes references to publications related to the randomized control trials, including:
Barlow, A., Mullany, B., Neault, N., Compton, S., Carter, A., Hastings, R., Billy T., Coho-Mescal, V., Lorenzo, S. & Walkup, J. T. (2015). Effect of a paraprofessional home-visiting intervention on American Indian teen mothers’ and infants’ behavioral risks: A randomized controlled trial.
Barlow A., Mullany B., Neault, N., et al. (2015). Paraprofessional-delivered, home-visiting intervention for American Indian teen mothers and children: 3-year outcomes from a randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Psychiatry, 172(2), 154–162. 10.1176/appi.ajp.2014.14030332
Barlow, A., Varipatis-Baker, E., Speakman, K., Ginsburg, G., Friberg, I., Goklish, N., Cowboy, B., Fields, P., Hastings, R., Pan, W., Reid, R., Santosham, M. & Walkup, J. (2006). Home-visiting intervention to improve childcare among American Indian adolescent mothers: A randomized trial. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 160(11), 1101-1107.
Mullany, B., Barlow, A., Neault, N., Billy, T., Jones, T., Tortice, I., Lorenzo, S., Powers, J., Lake, K., Reid, R. & Walkup, J. (2012). The Family Spirit trial for American Indian teen mothers and their children: CBPR rationale, design, methods and baseline characteristics. Prevention Science, 13(5), 504-518. https://www.jhsph.edu/research/affiliated-programs/family-spirit/_docs/proven-results/publications/5_-_Mullany_Barlow_et_al._2012.pdf